News |  Highlights  |  Media  |  Calendar  |  Search

ISEM Descriptions

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Humanities and Social Sciences (University Requirements)

HUMA 101: (2) Introduction to Logic, Critical Thinking

The course is a study of the processes by which the intellect conceptualizes, applies, analyzes, synthesizes, and evaluates the information it gathers from observation, experience, reflection, reasoning and communication. The course also examines the elements of thought implicit in reasoning, such as assumptions; concepts, conclusions, implications, consequences and frame of reference. Problems of moral philosophy and moral judgments, such as cultural relativism and subjectivism are also addressed. Theoretical approaches for answering questions about right and wrong are considered.

 

HUMA 102: (1) Introduction to Ethics

The emphasis of the course is on ethical issues and problems that arise in professional and business environments, such as integrity, civic responsibility, ethical conduct and misconduct, employee and corporate rights and responsibilities, and on issues concerning social and economic justice in a global economy.

 

NSCI 102: (3) Selected Topics in Natural Sciences

A course in any of the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, geology, or environmental science.

 

SSCI 103: (3) Selected Topics in Social Sciences

A course in any of the fields of sociology, economics, education, history, anthropology, psychology, or geography.

 

HUMA 103: (3) Selected Topics in Humanities and Arts

A course in any of the fields of Literature, Philosophy, Art, Music, or Sports.

 

NSCI ***, SSCI *** or HUMA ***: (3) General Knowledge Elective

An additional course to be chosen from one of the above three General Knowledge categories: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities & Arts.

 

SSCI 101 : (3) Selected Topics in Egyptian and Arab Heritage

A course highlighting aspects of the extraordinarily rich Ancient Egyptian, Coptic and Islamic heritage of Egypt.

 

SSCI 102: (3) Selected Topics in World Cultures and Diversity

This course exposes students to World Cultures both from a historical and a contemporary point of view. The course focuses on issues of globalization such as nationalism, struggle for identity and the conflicts caused by migration, racism, religious fundamentalism and terrorism. The course also emphasizes the positive aspects of multicultural societies, such as the sharing of resources and information and the increased understanding among the peoples of the world.

 

Mathematics and Basic Sciences

MATH 111: (4) Analytical Geometry & Calculus I

The course starts with a review of the basics of Analytical Geometry: the Cartesian coordinate system, distance, slope, equation and graph of a line and curve sketching. The calculus part covers functions, limits, derivatives, polynomials, rate of change, L'Hospital's Rule, higher derivatives, Mean Value Theorem, related rates, maximum and minimum, differentiation formulas, the differential and related applications.

MATH 201: (3) Introduction to Probability & Statistics

PR: MATH 111

This course takes a non-calculus approach to probability and statistics; topics include permutations and combinations, independence, random variables, events, measures of location and variability, joint and conditional probability. The course also introduces descriptive and inferential statistics, including graphical methods and data description.

MATH 112: (4) Calculus II

PR: MATH 111

Translation and rotation of axes, conic sections ( properties of conic sections- parabola, ellipse, hyperbola), Cartesian, cylindrical and polar spherical coordinates.

Integral calculus: definite and indefinite integrals, integration methods and applications of integration, integration by substitution and by parts, Integration by trigonometric substitution and partial fractions; arc length; improper integrals; Simpson's and Trapezoidal Rules for numerical integration. Functions of several variables and multiple integrals.

MATH 203: (4) Differential Equations

PR: MATH 112

Separable differential equations, first order linear differential equations, homogeneous second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, series solution, Newton's method, Taylor's Theorem. First-Order, Second-Order and Higher-Order Linear Differential Equations, partial differential equations, and  Laplace transforms.

MATH 301: (4) Linear Algebra

PR: MATH 203

Matrices and Gaussian elimination, Vector Spaces, Vector calculus, Orthogonality, Determinants, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Positive definite matrices, Computations with matrices, Linear programming and Game theory.

MATH 302: (4) Probability & Statistics for Engineers

PR: MATH 201 and MATH 203

The probability part of the course covers conditional independence,  discrete and continuous distribution functions, and conditional distributions, and the Central Limit theorem. The statistics course covers descriptive and inferential statistics, including graphing data, distributions, estimation and hypotheses testing and correlation analysis.

PHYS 101: (4) Physics I

PR: MATH 111

Measurements: Standards of length, mass, and time, dimensional analysis, the International system of units SI, conversion of units. Mechanics: Newton’s laws and applications, potential and kinetic energy, satellite motion and Kepler’s laws. Electrostatics: electric charge and Coulomb’s law: insulators and conductors, electrostatic field, Gauss’ law, potential, potential energy, dielectrics and capacitances, displacement vector, energy stored in the electrostatic field. Electrodynamics: electromotive force, voltage, electric current, resistance, Ohm’s law, electric power, direct current circuits, Kirchhoff’s laws, multi loop circuits. Magnetism: magnets, magnetic field, force on a current-carrying conductor, Ampere’s law and applications, induction, Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, inductors, energy stored in a magnetic field, mutual induction, magnetism of matter. Relevant lab experiments will be conducted.

 

PHYS 201: (4) Physics II

Physics II PR: PHYS 101 and MATH 111  
Optics: Interference, Diffraction, Polarization, electric and magnetic properties of light. Fluid Dynamics: hydrostatic pressure, Pascal’s principle, Archimedes’ principle, Dynamics of ideal fluids: continuity equation, Bernoulli’s equation, viscosity. Thermodynamics: The nature of heat, the laws of thermodynamics, temperature, thermal expansion, absorption of heat by solids and liquids, heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic theory of gases, ideal gases, distribution of molecular speed, molar specific heat, degrees of freedom, entropy, reversible and irreversible processes. Solid state physics: conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Modern Physics: atoms and molecules, nuclear structure, nuclear fission and fusion and the quantum. Relevant lab experiments will be conducted.

CHEM 101: (3) Chemical Principles

Mass and Energy balance, dynamic equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, concepts of rate processes, energy and mass transport, and kinetics of chemical reactions, combustion processes of fuels Electrochemistry and corrosion. Applications of these concepts to areas of current technological importance: biotechnology, production of chemicals, chemical pollution, materials processing, and water treatment and purification. Relevant lab experiments will be conducted.

 

Engineering Courses

ENGR 101: (3) Introduction to Engineering Disciplines

The course gives freshmen an overview of the main engineering disciplines thus helping them make the right choice regarding their future careers. Case studies in engineering are used to illustrate engineering and scientific principles. The students are also familiarized with some of the important engineering tools for problem solving such as MATLAB.

 

ENGR 102: (3) Engineering Design

PR: ENG 101

An introduction to the methods, tools, and processes related to engineering design. The course gives the student the ability to communicate by means of engineering drawing, including Orthographic representation of shapes, to develop three-dimensional imagination of forms and methods of presenting them in the plane, acquiring the skill of dealing with complex figures and study their geometrical properties. The students are also familiarized with some of the important engineering tools for graphical modeling including Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Group projects and case studies in engineering are used to illustrate engineering and scientific principles.

 

ECEN 201: (3) Electric Circuits

PR: PHYS 101

Basic electrical concepts and network theorems, circuit laws, resistance, capacitance, inductance; response of RC, RL and RLC circuits to initial conditions and constant forcing functions; AC steady-state analysis and AC power. Computer applications (using SPICE or similar tools).

 

MENG 101: (3) Engineering Mechanics (Statics & Dynamics)

PR: MATH 111

Space vectors, resultant of forces, moment, equations of equilibrium of a rigid body, types of supports, equilibrium of systems, mass center, moment of inertia, displacement, velocity and acceleration of a particle, trajectory equations, use of Cartesian coordinates to describe particle motion, projectiles, polar axes, relative motion, Newton’s law of motion, resistive media, simple harmonic motion of a particle, motion on circular path, work and Kinetic energy, conservative forces, conservation of energy, impulse and momentum, eccentric impact of two particles.

 

ENGR 201: (4) Solid Modeling & Workshop

PR: ENGR 102

The course covers the foundations of mechanical design, descriptive and solid geometry, including projections and intersections, basic dimensioning, sections, fasteners, materials, and forming processes. In the workshop the students learn how to use basic machine shop equipment and tools, how to operate them safely, and how to control these machines numerically and digitally.

 

IENG 302: (3) Safety Engineering

The focus of the course is on a system engineering approach to safety, causes of accidents, accident analysis and control, techniques used in safety analysis, safety management and organization, risk management, training, human behavioral approach in safety.

 

IENG 301: (3) Engineering Economics

Introduction to the concepts of determining the economic feasibility of engineering undertakings, especially the time value of money, interest rates, depreciation, replacement, economic life, present value, rate of return, payback period. Other topics will include financing, supply and demand, private and social cost estimations, secondary and intangible benefits and costs, benefit-cost models, economic risk analysis and economic optimization.

 

Industrial/Service Engineering and Management Core Courses & Tracks

IENG 201 (3) Introduction to Industrial and Service Engineering

Introduction to the fundamentals of Industrial Engineering; concepts, analysis, and design. Applications of the principles and problems in operations research, systems analysis, manufacturing processes, human factors, facility design, process selection, production processes, quality and operation management.

IENG 202 (3) Manufacturing Technology

This course provides an introduction to engineering materials and their properties, production of common metals. Types of manufacturing firms, basic manufacturing processes; casting, metal forming welding and machining. An overview of some advanced manufacturing processes. Measurement; standards, instruments, deviations and methods.

IENG 305 (3) Engineering and Service Management

PR: IENG 201

This course provides an overview of Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME), introducing a comprehensive set of definitions of services, early definitions and thoughts on services.  The impact of services on modern economies, classification of Service Systems, considerations for the management of services, service productivity and innovation, considerations for the use of methods in the services lifecycle from engagement through solutions design and delivery, SSME Challenges and frameworks, Case studies.

 IENG 303 (3) Operations Research

 PR: MATH 302

This course is designed to give a broad foundation in Operational Research (OR), and to provide an understanding of the techniques of OR and develop the skills required to incorporate these techniques in the management decision process. The course provides training in the mathematical and computational foundations of OR and experience in modeling practical decision problems. There is a focus on risk management and computational optimization, and evolving application areas such as finance, telecommunications, energy and data mining.

IENG 401 (3) Project Management

PR: IENG 303

This course addresses the fundamental of project management, as well as the tools and techniques necessary to manage complex projects. These principles, largely developed and tested on engineering projects, are being successfully applied to projects of all sizes and types within the business world. They are also fully aligned with the industry standard Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK), published by the worldwide Project Management Institute (PMI). The course will enable students to master projects planning, scheduling and estimating; developing approval process, including testing for alternatives; understanding project information and control systems; properly selecting resources, allocation and implementation, and post project evaluation.

IENG 308 (3) Human Factors Engineering

PR: IENG 202

This course focuses on the application of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations to the design of workplaces, work methods and jobs for optimal safety, efficiency, productivity and comfort. Topics include: systems design and task analysis, muscle use and anthropometry, workspace design, activity-related soft tissue disorders, back injuries, shift work, organizational and psychosocial aspects of work, skilled work and mental activity and regulations in ergonomics. Objectives include how to increase awareness of the need for and role of ergonomics in occupational health, to obtain basic knowledge in the application of ergonomic principles to design of industrial workplaces and the prevention of occupational injuries to understand the breadth and scope of occupational ergonomics.

IENG 405 (3) Facilities Planning and Design

PR: IENG 303 and IENG 308

This course covers strategic facilities planning through detailed facilities layout design. Course components include product flow, space and activity relationships, personnel requirements, material handling, and layout. Traditional and contemporary issues in manufacturing and their impact on facilities design including receiving, shipping, warehousing and integration with manufacturing and supporting operations are explored. Facilities planning models and the process of evaluating, selecting, preparing, presenting, and implementing the facilities plans are covered.

IENG 306(3) Operations Management

PR: IENG 305

This course focus on operations and productivity concepts – Production control, operation decision making – Systems design, capacity and investment – Functions of inventory and ordering systems-Facility location and layout – Planning for goods and services – Process planning and selection – Forecasting demand – Production-inventory systems, materials requirements planning (MRP), Just-in-time systems Aggregate demand – Aggregate planning and master scheduling.

IENG 406 (3) Modeling and Simulation

PR: IENG 303 and IENG 405

This course provides a basic treatment of discrete-event simulation, including the proper collection and analysis of data, the use of analytic techniques, verification and validation of models, and designing simulation experiments. Furthermore, it presents the application of simulation in manufacturing and material handling systems, and service industries.

IENG 408 (3) Management Information Systems

PR: IENG 201

This course provides an introduction to Management Information Systems; Importance of information systems to management, hardware, software, input/output devices, file and database, communication, decision support systems and expert systems. MIS planning and development.

IENG 307 (3) Advanced Statistics and Quality Engineering

PR: MATH 302

This course provides a historical view of quality, introduction of the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), Deming’s 14 Points, Taguchi’s View of Quality, Statistical Fundamentals, principles and concepts of statistical quality control, quality improvement tools, control charts for variables, control charts for attributes, choice between attribute and variable control charts, process capability measures, types of attribute acceptance sampling plans, characteristics of acceptance sampling plans, producer consumers relationships, performance of acceptance sampling plans, economics of acceptance sampling plans, standard attribute acceptance sampling plans applications and limitation, and case studies.

IENG 403 (3) Engineering Cost Analysis

PR: IENG 301

The course outlines the fundamentals of pricing and standard cost, factory overhead costs, use of cost analysis for planning and control processes.  Introduction to principles of accounting, and the concepts and techniques of cost accounting are covered. Emphasis placed on the application of cost information to the production of manufacturing goods.

IENG 404 (3) Product Realization

PR: ENGR 102 and IENG 201

This course examines the product design and development process. Topics include: organization and management issues associated with the product development process; the identification of customer needs and the translation of these needs into product performance specifications; methodologies for the generation and selection of concepts; developing the product architecture with emphasis on creating interfaces, prototyping and design for manufacturing, layered manufacturing, reverse engineering, and product life cycle including feasibility, market study, and Business planning.

IENG 402 (3) Materials Technologies and Processes

PR: IENG 202

This course covers three main topics, i.e.,  Material Technologies; Material Forming Processes; and Material Removal Processes.

Material Technologies include the material selection for manufacturing, casting processes, solidification, fluid flow, melting practice and casting alloys, continuous casting and die casting, die design; polymers, processing of polymers, processing of reinforced plastics; metal powders; production and compaction, and ceramics properties and forming.

Material Forming Processes include plastic deformation processes, mechanical behavior of materials, stress, strain, Bulk Deformation Processes, Forging, Forgeability, Rolling, Extrusion, Rod and wire Drawing, Sheet Metal work, Formability, Deep drawing, Shearing Processes; Blanking, Piercing and welding processes.

Material Removal Processes include Chip Type Machining processes, Cutting Tools for machining, Turning processes, Drilling, Broaching, Abrasive machining, Work Holding devices, Thread Manufacturing, Gear Manufacturing, and processes accuracy and produced surface finish.

IENG 409 (3) Advanced Manufacturing Systems

PR: IENG 402

This course reflects manufacturers’ growing need to integrate computers into their production processes, this course covers the machining fundamentals—as well as Computer Numerical Control programming and operation of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools with a focus on word address (G and M code) programming for the industry standard Fanuc controllers.

IENG 502 (3) Non-Traditional Manufacturing Technology

PR: IENG 409

This course describes the manufacturing methods related to manufacturing of non ferrous material, i.e., plastics, polymers and manufacturing methods of electronic products. The course also covers other non-traditional manufacturing technologies, i.e., rapid prototyping and its applications in manufacturing and service industries.

IENG 410 (3) Operations Management in Service Industries

PR: IENG 306

This course deals with a firm's operations management function, with emphasis on service organizations. It examines critical competitive and strategic issues pertaining to service operations management. A sampling of topics addressed includes service facility design, layout, and location, service quality, managing queues, managing capacity and demand, the service encounter, forecasting and project management. A wide survey of service industries will be studied including healthcare, financial services, consulting, entertainment, hospitality, airlines, higher education, and environmental services.

IENG 407 (3) Logistics and Supply Chain Management

PR: IENG 306

This course covers the major issues in supply chain management, including: definition of a supply chain; role of inventory; advanced production-inventory models; supply contracts; bullwhip effect and information sharing; vendor-managed inventories and other distribution strategies; third-party logistics providers; managing product variety; information technology and supply chain management; international issues.

IENG 411 (3) Engineering Management

PR: IENG 306

This course provides an accessible and comprehensive guide to management. All the management functions that are part of a medium or large-sized organization are covered from basic people skills to business strategy, decision-making, financial management, project management, manufacturing operations, marketing and sales.

IENG 412 (3) Introduction to Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management

PR: IENG 411

This course consists of three parts. The first part introduces students to the entrepreneurial activity. The second part concentrates on the survival and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and focuses on the managerial aspects of SMEs when compared to large firms. The third part addresses the unique challenges faced by family businesses. Topics covered include the benefits and drawbacks of being an entrepreneur, developmental structures and designs, focus development, management during fast growth periods, lack of resources and financing, development of sustainable intangible resources (legitimacy, status, reputation, etc). Other topics related to family business management include ownership, governance and management, succession planning, generational gaps, delegation and control and the role of non-family members.

IENG 503 (3) Modeling of Industrial and Service Systems

PR: IENG 406 and IENG 411

This course introduces the system concept and approach in design and operation. The course will help students to identify and differentiate between various types of systems, model and analyze various industrial and service systems and processes, system mapping and description using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Pseudo coding, and the breakdown and structure of an object oriented system. UML is the modern engineering language to describe a system and serves as an input for software design. Through a set of case studies, students will be trained to analyze and describe software programming requirements of automated machining and processing needed for software coding and human interactive programming.

IENG 507 (3) Reverse Engineering

PR: IENG 404

This course provides an introduction to product development with reverse engineering concept – Product development tools – definition of customer needs –product architectures – Product metrics – design for manufactures and assembly – design for environment – case studies

IENG 508 (3) International Business

This course introduces students to the world of international business by focusing on the social, economic, geopolitical and cultural dimensions of cross-border business and trade. The main topics covered include: special features of the international marketplace (geopolitics and geo-economic aspects, globalization and regional economic integration, international monetary and financial institutions, cross-cultural management, etc.), strategies to access and operate in foreign markets (export, foreign direct investment, joint-ventures, licensing, franchising, strategic alliances, etc.), as well as the ethical aspects related to international business.

IENG 509 (3) Reliability Engineering

PR: IENG 307

This course introduces students to principles of reliability, failure rate and its relation to reliability, probability distribution of the time to failure, exponential and Weibull distributions, reliability of systems, series and parallel systems, stand by redundancy, systems mean time to failure, mean residual life, reliability in design. Failure mode effect analysis, failure tree analysis, reliability testing analysis, and warranty problems.

IENG 510 (3) Maintenance Management

PR: IENG 509

This course introduces students to Maintenance and the industrial organization – acquisition policy and maintenance life – cycle costs – maintenance strategy, a business centered approach – the reliability of plant components and systems – determining the life plan and schedule – controlling plant reliability – reliability centered maintenance – enterprise asset management – methods of handling managing maintenance operations in manufacturing and service enterprises.

IENG 413 (3) Warehouse Science and Operations

PR: IENG 309

This course covers main issues in warehouse layout, processes, material handling equipment, warehouse information systems, automation, measuring warehouse efficiency, as well as special topics in warehouse management.

IENG 513 (3) Industrial Distribution Systems

PR: IENG 309

This course covers the design and analysis of distribution systems of people, processes and technology. The focus is on distribution, warehousing, and material handling. Topics include the various modes of warehousing and distribution, i.e., cross-docking, 3PL and 4PL logistics outsourcing,  Vendor Managed Inventories, role of the warehouse in the extended enterprise, warehouse planning, process design, layout, equipment selection, workforce and workplace issues, and financial performance measures.

IENG: 514 (3) Information and Decision Support

PR: IENG 408

This course provides applications of decision support systems in a business environment are studied. Issues pertaining to maintenance of data, construction of models and provision of supporting technology are explored. Students will analyze, design and implement a managerial decision support system using current development tools.

 IENG 515 (3) Total Quality Management

PR: IENG 307

This course provides an introduction to History and evolution of quality, definition of quality, basic concept of total quality management, philosophies of leading sags of quality Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Crosby, Taguchi, characteristics of quality distribution parameters, relationship between quality parameters, some statistical process control tools, quality costs.

IENG 516 (3) Introduction to Management of Technology

PR: IENG 411

This course surveys the key issues related to the strategic management of technology at the firm level. Course objective is to improve the students’ knowledge and skills related to managing technologies in a firm. It provides an introduction to the concepts and methods in the following topic  Identification of Firm’s Current and Potential Technologies;  Auditing Firm’s Technological Capabilities ;  Technology Assessment (Technology Forecasting, Evaluation of Technology Impact on the Firm’s Competitiveness) ; Technology Planning (Strategic view) ; Acquisition & Exploitation of Technology (Technological Innovation, Technology Transfer)

IENG 517 (3) Design of Experiment

PR: IENG 307

This course provides a Revision of models of statistical analysis, objectives of design of experiments, single factor designs, several factors designs, 2k factorial design, fractional factorial design, orthogonal array and Taguchi methods, robust design.

IENG 501 (0) Practical Training

PR: Senior Standing – Completion of 138 Credit Hours.

A minimum of four weeks of practical training in off-campus sites elected by the department. Students are required to submit a recognition letter form the site where they received their training, in addition, a report and a presentation are submitted as well. Course is a Pass/Fail course.

ENGR 540 (3) Graduation Project I

PR: Senior Standing - Completion of 138 credit hours.

Application-oriented capstone project to show competence in major academic area, where an independent research project is conducted under the guidance of a faculty member in the IEMS Department. The research should contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field. Written report and formal presentation are required.

ENGR 541 (3) Graduation Project II

PR: ENG 490

The continuation and completion of the capstone project.

 

OTHER COURSES

CSCE 101: (3) Computer & Information Skills

The goal of the course is to help the student develop the basic research and information technology skills needed to succeed in their academic and later professional careers. These skills include defining information needs, efficient use of web resources, managing data, basics of data bases, effective research methodologies, evaluation of research results and communicating these results in electronic form –via programs such as, but not limited to, WORD, POWERPOINT, EXCEL and ACCESS.

 

CSCE 201: (3) Introduction to Programming

Introduction to the process of program design and analysis using the C ++ and the Java programming languages. The course provides basic understanding of programming concepts; constructs, data types, looping, nesting, functions, arrays, objects and classes. The topics also include good programming practices, modularity, reusability and ease on maintenance.

 

COMM 401: (3) Internship & Service Learning

Student internships provide on-the-job training opportunities to students that help them gain experience in their fields, develop an interest in a particular career, and create a network of contacts. Service-learning enriches learning by engaging students in meaningful service to their communities. Students apply academic skills to solving real-world problems and linking their learning with genuine needs. They also learn to apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to global concerns such as hunger, pollution, and diversity. Students spend a full month of non-lecture time on their internship/service learning activity and submit a report at the end.

 

ENGL 101: (3) English I

The goal of the course is to develop college skills of reading, writing and critical thinking, to know how to select a topic, explore and organize ideas, use vocabulary efficiently, use correct grammatical structures and write an essay ranging between three to five paragraphs.  

 

ENGL 102:(3) English II

PR: ENGL 101   

The goals of the course include: Locating materials through observation, analysis and critical reading, developing a focused thesis statement, developing well structured paragraphs composed of an introduction, a body and a conclusion. Use of summarizing and paraphrasing skills.

 

ENGL 201: (3) Writing Skills

PR: ENGL 102

The goals of the course include: Locating materials for a research topic, using library and internet resources, summarizing articles and books, using quotation and source citation for professional papers, using inductive and deductive reasoning, developing the skills of scientific argumentation, persuasion, evaluation and criticism needed for a research paper.

ENGL 202: (3) Communication & Presentation Skills
PR: ENGL 201

This course helps students learn and practice the skills of interpersonal and professional communication. Psychological, social, cultural and linguistics aspects of communication are considered. Attention is given to human perceptions, interpersonal dynamics, patterns of inference, the arts of listening and convincing, as well as to the value of verbal and visual symbols. The course also helps students improve their skills in oratory, argumentation and public presentation.